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Lesson:  1, 2, 3, 4



Lesson ¹ 1

Defense Techniques

Defense is an action by a fighter performed with the aim of preventing the opponent's attack. There are, in practical terms, within the sphere of single combat, two methods of attack, and therefore two groups of defense techniques against these attacks:

1.  Strikes and defenses against them.
2.  Grabs, throws and holds (mainly pain-compliance) and defenses against them.

Apart from the above, defense methods may be sub-divided according to whether the defender is moving or not, thus:

1. Defense while in motion
2. Defense while falling
3. Defense while staying in place

Defense while staying in place

Defense while staying in place or "on the spot" can be divided into contact and non-contact methods depending on whether the defender has some form of bodily contact with the assailant:

a) non-contact
- bobbing, weaving, ducking
b) contact
- twisting the body along the axis of the spine
- twisting the arms at the shoulders (from a side strike)
- rotating the forearm and using the outer edge of it to block blows at various targets of the body

It is important to remind oneself that in fencing, there are up to twelve defense zones. Try to let the right hand work to defend the right half of the body and the left hand the left half of the body.
Remember: "The right hand can do nothing if it is in the left pocket!"

 Defenses against strikes: Methods of defense without contact with the assailant

 The defense of bobbing, weaving, and ducking
The techniques of inclining the head and body away from strikes resemble the techniques of classical boxing. A more detailed description of them will be given in subsequent publications.    Everyone   has   the instinctive ability to move their shoulder, hand, leg, etc. away from an assailant's strike; therefore, let us examine in detail only those methods which require contact with the assailant.
 Defenses against blows: Methods of defense involving contact with the assailant.
Defenses by rotating your body around the axis of the spine.
This method is effective against strike or kicks, be they delivered from above or below, as long as the assailant’s line of power is directed toward your body in a horizontal plane (straight punch, front kick, etc.) Let’s take a look at defense techniques from two different types of attacks:
1. The assailant attacks with a straight punch   to the chest with his right hand. Relax and twist the pelvis and body in a clockwise direction and make contact with the outer edge of the assailant’s attacking arm with your arm. Tense the muscles in the chest.  The chest should be convex (inflated) and try not to change the direction of the opponent’s line of power. Instead, continue his line of power and your direction of movement until your body is fully rotated. As a consequence, the opponent will lose his balance and fall. Exhale and follow up with a counter.
2. The opponent attacks from behind with a strike or a push. Relax and twist the pelvis and body so as to make contact with the outer edge of the forearm of the attacking arm. Rounding the shoulders and back, we roll the attacking arm across the muscles of the back, continuing the line of power of the attack until the opponent loses his balance. Exhale and follow up with a counter.

Important Points:

  1. It is preferable to step back from the strike and stand in the “lower frame” position while guiding the attacking arm past using the chest or back.
  2. Apply the principle of “striking” to the attacking arm, rolling the point of contact with it across the entire surface of the chest or back.
  3. Do not try to change direction of the opponent’s line of power. If you suddenly try to change this direction, you run the risk of loosing your own balance.
  4. When twisting the body, most of the work is done by the pelvis.

Training methods:

a) When first beginning, we resist the opponent’s strength.
b) When we see the line of power, we relax and give way to its strength. While working on this method of defense, we must invariably maintain the direction of the assailant’s line of power.
c) Twisting and continuing the strength (helping it) at a tangent to your body. While working on these movements, pay particular attention to your own position and movements.
Getting away from your attacker without breaking contact is the greatest goal of combat.


1
Fig. 2

2. The opponent attacks from behind with a strike or a push. Relax and twist the pelvis and body so as to make contact with the outer edge of the forearm of the attacking arm. Rounding the shoulders and back, we roll the attacking arm across the muscles of the back, continuing the line of power of the attack until the opponent loses his balance. Exhale and follow up with a counter. Important Points:
- it is preferable to step back from the strike and stand in the "lower frame" position while guiding the attacking arm past using the chest or back.
- apply the principle of "sticking" to the attacking arm, rolling the point of contact with it across the entire surface of the chest or back.
- do not try to change direction of the opponent's line of power. If you suddenly try to change this direction, you run the risk of loosing your own balance.
- when twisting the body, most of the work is done by the pelvis.

Training methods:

- when first beginning, we resist the opponent's strength.
- when we see the line of power, we relax and give way to its strength. While working on this method of defense, we must invariably maintain the direction of the assailant's line of power.
- subduing and continuing the strength (helping it) at a tangent to your body. While working on these movements, pay particular  attention  to  your  own positions and movements.









A.A.Kadochnikov's reference to the Federation of Russian Martial Art of Ukraine, devoted to the 10-anniversary of federation.







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